Automobile Compressed Natural Gas

Properties Natural gas contains 85–95 % methane. The heat value, stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, and heat value of the fuel-air mixture are similar to those of gasoline. Therefore, changing a car to run on methane from gasoline is not difficult. The...

Automobile Alcohols: Methanol and Ethanol

Production Nikolas August Otto utilized ethanol in his engine prototypes as early as 1860; Henry Ford used bioethanol between 1908 and 1927 in series cars and declared it to be the fuel of the future. Ethanol and methanol are obtained...

Energy Sources: Resources, Potential, and Properties

Transformation of the chemical energy of a fuel with the general structure CmHnOp is possible in two ways: – In thermal engines, chemical energy is converted into heat and subsequently into work for direct car propulsion or for on-board current...

Automobile Vegetable Oils

Production The variety of plants from which oil can be obtained provides considerable potential for nourishment and also for fuel; examples are rapeseed, beets, sunflowers, flax, olive trees, coconut palms, peanuts, soy, castor-oil plant, cocoa, and cotton. The extraction of...

Voltage correction Cranking enrichment

Pulse length is increased if the battery voltage falls, this is to compensate for the slower reaction time of the injectors. The injectors are fired at every ignition pulse instead of every other pulse for cranking enrichment. After-start enrichment This is to...

Automobile Mazda lean burn technology

loss is also lower because one can open the throttle wider when adjusting air input. These two effects contribute to the higher fuel economy of lean-burn engines.  shows these features. The tumble swirl control (TSC) valve and its effects...

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